If every memory, written word and piece of technology on Earth was destroyed simultaneously, leaving humanity to begin again, everything we have come to know about science could and would eventually be rediscovered.
People would discover the elements, their interactions and uses. Biology would be as fascinating as it is now and eventually some future Darwin would put all the pieces in place and adduce the theory of evolution. The planets and stars would intrigue and after centuries of study and contemplation, we would deduce the origins and structure of the universe.
This is the power of the scientific method, it can and would be replicated.
Myths of a garden containing a talking snake would be gone forever.